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The universe
1) Cosmogony reconstructs through backward extrapolation the earliest physical conditions of
the cosmos. From a singularity at a finite point in space-time about 14 x 109 years ago, a state
of extreme density of radiation energy, approaching Planck’s time ht, it exploded, cooled and 
developed into the present geometry with a multitude of material formations.
2) Cosmology
   2,1) The macro-cosmos is a coherently gravitation bound, isotropic, homogeneous, inflationary 
   accelerating Riemann geometry with asymptotic Minkowski properties towards infinite. It de-
   veloped stable single and groups of galaxies, clusters, nebula, stars and planetary systems.
   2,2) The meso-cosmos constitutes the validity range of classical, non-relativistic physics. Its 
   phenomena of abiotic matter are described by physics, chemistry and their fields of study.
   2,3) The micro-cosmos enfolds according to the standard model out of 3 classes of elementary 
   particles, point like spin ½ particles, field particles of the 4 forces and Higgs particles, pre-
   serving symmetries. It is ruled predominantly by strong, weak and electro-magnetic forces, 
   unified in a single theory. It is described by Quantum Mechanics, Electro-, Chromo- und 
3) Eschatology projects through forward extrapolation future physical conditions of the cosmos 
for the next 1027 years as a continuing, entropy gaining, spatial expansion, dispersion of matter 
and emission of radiation to leave black dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.

Natural Environments
Natural environments are long term variables of in nature found energy, matter, flora and fauna.
1) The Heliosphere, a star of medium size and luminosity, about 4.5x109 years old, generating by
nuclear fusion electro-magnetic radiation, a gravitational and geometrical center of nine orbiting
planets, allows a long, stable developmental time span for evolution of organic life. Planetary 
preconditions to support life in a moderate climate are: α) an adequate mass, size and structure, 
β) an adequate distance to the source of radiation, γ) an approximately circular orbit, δ) an ap-
proximately perpendicular rotation axis, ε) a medium rotation frequency, ζ) a chemical com-
position, containing all essential elements, η) a magnetic field and atmosphere, shielding high 
energy radiation.
2) The earth's magnetic field extends as magnetosphere asymmetrically ≈ 6o ooo km sunwards 
and ≈ 1 2oo ooo km away from it. Layered below are the plasmasphere and ionosphere. It de-
flects charged particle of the solar wind, which would erode the upper atmosphere with the 
ozone layer, shielding ultra-violet radiation.
3) The Biosphere describes all single factors enclosed by the atmosphere.
   3,1) The atmosphere of the earth, reaching about 10 km upwards, consists out of 78% N2, 21% 
   O2, 0,03% CO2 and in its lower layers up to 4% of H2OVAP. It dampens by circulation 
   temperature and pressure differences, carries precipitation inland and serves as a metabolic fuel.
   3,2) The hydrosphere in forms of gas, ice and liquid, found to 99,7 % in the oceans, supplies 
   with sweet water the largest component of plants and animals and is indispensable in their 
   3,3) The lithosphere, the outer, firm, plate layered mantle of the earth, reaching about 100 km 
   deep, has as its crust the pedosphere with rocks, stones, sands and soils of various qualities.
   3,4) The biotic environment includes all living organisms in water, land and air.
   3,5) Ecology describes individual, population, environmental abiotic and biotic forces and con-
   ditions of life with their multifaceted interdependencies in the development over geological 
   time spans. Local ecological environments often form out self-organizing, semiclosed systems 
   with energy-metabolic cycles along an ascending food chain in a dynamic, labile balance.
   3,6) Man causes major, often irreversible environmental changes, substitutions, destructions 
   and climatic shifts through persistent, large scale technological applications with pollution of 
   air, water and soil and eradication of entire biotopes and species.
4) Boundaries are universal natural, mental and spiritual limits between man, society, nature 
and God. They can be expanded with improved cognition by contemplative, artistic, scientific 
research and applications to open up new fields of study and correct, refine, add to and 
spread present knowledge.

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First stages of evolution
The earliest forms of life appeared about 3.7 x 109 years ago. Development of life on earth
(biogenesis) was first a chemical, abiotic evolution, taking place in the oceans in the presence 
of phosphates (XPO4), silicates (XSiO4), metal ions, an atmosphere of nitrogen (N2), ammonia 
(NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulfur hydrogen (H2S), hydrogen (H2) and energy 
sources of heat, radiation and electric discharges. Formed were mixtures of amino acids, 
proteinoid microspheres with first forms of a membrane, metabolism and growth by budding. 
Biological evolution with nucleic acid chains capable of reproduction progressed in self-
organization of matter with basic forces of the evolutionary drives over repetitive life cycles of 
mutation, recombination, differentiation of structures, special-ization of functions, adaptation 
and selection. Formed were protobiontes, containing a short DNA strand, which differentiated 
stepwise an improved metabolism, protein production, a multifunctional membrane. The first 
prokaryotes of blue algae and bacteria appeared. Following in the first evolutionary line were 
eukaryotes with differentiated organelles within the cell and a membrane enclosed nucleus, con-
taining a chromosome set to control cell division by mitosis (start of phylogenesis). Their oldest 
known chalky fossils found in oceanic sediments are about 1.5 x 109 years old. The spreading 
one cell organisms took up mainly carbon and hydrogen containing molecules in exchange for 
nitrogen and oxygen to radically change the composition of the atmosphere, starting 2 x 109 
years back, into the one we know today. During the Upper Precambrian of about 9 x 108 years 
ago the evolutionary rate of the diverse aquatic one cell organisms accelerated, forming multi
cellular eukaryotes with specialized cell functions. The branches of plants and animals sepa-
rated about 1 x 108 years back, introduced was sexual reproduction, further accelerating the 
evolutionary rate, and set up was a heterotrophic food chain with plants at the base, before the 
first forms of plant life appeared on land. 
The first evolutionary line is continuously traceable in the development of genetic materials, their 
proteins (phylogenetic topology) and ensuing forms of life. The first nucleic acid chains grew by 
processes of base pair changes, addition, deletion, inversion, duplication, rearrangements, 
activation, deactivation, in later stages by production of catalyzing enzymes, by interaction of 
these factors, mostly enlarging the overall DNA material. The development of function specific 
genes and proteins is graphically demonstrated by a polygenetic tree (molecular phylogram), by 
branch order and lengths, indicating their degree and distance of relation, the evolutionary steps 
and the corresponding evolutionary rates. The molecular tree of lineage delineates copy true the 
evolutionary tree of comparative anatomy of all plant and animal species, stating a common 
ancestry of all living organisms in the bio-chemical building blocks, the genetic code, the bio-
synthesis of proteins, the catalysis by enzymes and an energy metabolism with glycolysis.

The phylogenetic theory of descent serves as basis for description, denotation and cate-
gorization (taxonomy) of all organisms. As a result of evolutionary processes, there exist in
discontinuous variability today about 5oo ooo plant and 2ooo ooo animal species. The degree of 
relationship between groups, traced in a hierarchical, monophyletic tree of lineage, is measured 
by singular, homologous, derived traits in descent of corresponding original traits (taxon, pl. 
taxa). Taxonomic categories are rooted in four kingdoms (regnum, pl. regna) of one cell or-
ganisms, prokaryotes, eukaryotes and mushrooms.


The cell nucleus
The human genetic material, the genome, is stored on 2 sets (diploid) of 23 homologous 
chromosomes (22 autosome and 1 sex chromosome), confined as in all eukaryotes in a cell 
nucleus. The hereditary information is passed on as coded sequences and lengths, triplets or 
codons, of Desoxyribonucleinacids, DNA, selected from two purine bases guanin (G), adenin (A) 
and two pyrimidine bases cytosin (C), thymin (T). The codons, yielding 43 = 64 possibilities, 
encode for regulative signals and 20 essential proteins, the base group, accounting for about 
2oo ooo proteins of the human body. The codons are arranged commaless, non-overlapping. 
They constitute a universal transcription code for all living organisms. About 6 x 107 bases, one
the primary structure, are joined by addition polymerization to form out a single macromolecular 
chromosomal strand. Two complementary strands are arranged to a right handed, antiparallel 
double helix, the secondary structure. The interwinding strands are held together by hydrogen 
bonds between opposite C-G and A-T base pairs (bp). Each chromosome carries about 5o ooo 
genes, one the functional unit, forming out a trait that is being passed on by Mendelian 
inheritance, consisting of single copy sequences with about 1 ooo bp or polygenetically of 
repetitive, multicopy sequences with 2 - 10 gene copies with 20 - 500 bp each or of interspersed, 
with non-functional groups (introns) alternating, multicopy sequences. The double helix with a 
diameter of 2 x 10-9 m coils itself on nucleosomes, the tertiary structure, compressing the entire 
genome (chromatin) into a cell nucleus of 6 x 10-6 m in size.

Proteins, polymeric amino acids, containing a peptide bond in the repeat unit -(- RCH (NH2)
COOH -)- with a molecular mass of 1o - 1oo ooo and a chain length of 5o - 1ooo units, constitute 
the basic building blocks of all organisms. They represent up to 50% of structural cell material 
and serve as regulative, storage, immune active proteins. They are synthesized mainly in two 
steps, a process called gene expression, by transcription within the nucleus and after transport 
by translation in the cytoplasm of the cell, both proceeding over the phases of initiation, 
elongation and termination. In transcription, realizing the encoded genetic information, a gene
sequence of a locally unwound chromosome string, the template, is copied base by base onto a 
single stranded messenger RNA (mRNA), the matrix. In translation, assisted by ribosomal 
binding sites, the matrix directs bio-synthesis, the produced amino acid units being polymerized 
by addition, unidirectionally to a polypeptide chain, followed by folding, function specific modi-
fications and transport.

Growth processes
An organism's life cycle over the stages of zygote, embryo, youth, adult, death (biology of 
development) in regular succession of generations is fueled by species specific, somatic (non-
germ) cell growth, quantitative increase of cell tissue and by differentiation, qualitative 
expression of specific cell functions and organs. The morphological changes (morphogenesis), 
development and arrangement of cell populations in precise positioning and organized manner, 
are regulated by temporal genes for cell specific initiators, transcriptional and translational 
control and by external factors like intercellular signals, often hormones, in equilibrium with
anabolic and catabolic metabolism. Growth of a cell type is achieved by cell division and 
subsequent increase of cytoplasmic volume. The periodic cell cycle proceeds in the steps of cell 
division (mitosis (M)), gap (G1), synthesis (S), gap (G2). In nucleus (karyokinesis) and cell 
division (cytokinesis) the chromosome set is separated to distribute the two homologous 
halves to the daughter nuclei. In synthesis, the haploid sets in each nucleus are replicated 
over 1o ooo replication units per chromosome simultaneously for a copy true, continuous 
passing down of the genetic information to the next cell generation.


Sexual reproduction
Animal cell hybridization takes place in the sexual replication process in purpose of reproduction, 
the production of new living organisms to guarantee the continuity of the species. It proceeds in 
the sexual cycle in three successive stages: The male (spermatozoa) and female (ova) germ 
cells grow in germ cell production (gametogenesis) mainly out of meiosis, two cell divisions of 
meiosis I, proceeding in 9 phases and meiosis II, a mitotic division, proceeding in 5 phases, 
achieving random assortment of chromosomes in the germ cells and a reduction of the diploid 
chromosome set to one half. In cell fusion (karyogamy, conjunction of nuclei in copulation) the 
gametocytes with their haploid chromosome sets are brought together to form a fertilized egg 
cell (zygote), a randomly recombined diploid chromosome complement, preserving a constant 
number of chromosomes. In the third, diploid phase, the zygote develops into the embryo, the 
daughter generation (ontogenesis), by successive cell divisions and development to an adult 
with formation of sex organs to complete the sex cycle.

Hereditary traits
The genotype of an organism, the complete set of genes, determines the hereditary traits and 
forms out in steps of species specific development the phenotype of the organism (pheno-
genesis), the visible and empirically verifiable manifestation of a morphological form. The 
phenotype is codetermined by a multitude of competing factors like the organism's environment, 
by humans also by personal and social conditions, which change repeatedly over a life span and 
by anthropological behavior patterns. A genetically hereditary trait is based on an organism's 
identical replication and distribution of alleles to daughter cells, on a selected bio-synthetic 
pathway (gene expressivity or penetrance), on timing of gene expression of the required gene at 
the required time of development from the complete genome present in each cell (totipotency). 
Growth and differentiation of functions over the stages of embryo, youth, adult (ontogenesis) 
form out the full complexity, capacity, coordination and flexibility of the phenotype's hereditary 
traits. In humans, least determined by its genotype are behavioral traits, because of the 
enormous variety of developmental pathways of the central nervous system.

Laws of inheritance
Mendel's laws of inheritance (1865) describe the genetic recombinations of allele pairs in sexual 
reproduction over successive generations, visible as hereditary traits, where the parent gen-
eration P differs in one allele on their diploid chromosome set with a pure homozygote wildtype 
a-a- and a pure homozygote mutagenic type a+a+. The variability of the genome is passed on in 
new combinations, where the progeny's ratio of genotypes is statistically predictable. Mendel's 
laws therefore serve as the genetic basis for breeding technologies. 
1st law of uniformity: Crossing of two pure bred homozygote strains P with the allele com-
binations a-a- and a+a+ results in a first daughter generation F1, which is uniform heterozygote 
in genotype 2a-a+. The trait expressed allele is called dominant, the unexpressed recessive, 
codominant alleles will form out an intermediate quality or intensity.
2nd law of segregation: Crossing of the heterozygous F1 generation results in a second daughter 
generation F2 with randomly distributed allele pairs, in average a relation of genotypes of 1:2:1 or 
a-a- : 2a-a+ : a+a+. The phenotypes split correspondingly 3:1 with a trait dominant allele, 1:2:1 
with trait codominant alleles.
3rd law of independent assortment: Crossing of polyhybrid Fn strains with the non-linked allele 
combinations ab and cd results in a daughter generation Fn+1 with a free combination of allele 
pairs, where the gene loci separate and new genotypes and phenotypes may arise that are not 
present in the Fn generation.


Breeding technologies
Breeding techniques have been employed since prehistoric times of about 1o ooo years. 
Improving plant and animal traits of quality and form like nutritional content, yield, adaptability, 
resistivity, freshness, has given a major contribution to human civilization. Selection, crossing 
and cultivation, utilizing genetic variability and hereditary traits, reduce the genetic reserves, 
which are also depleted by destruction of biotopes of wildtypes. Breeding (mating) systems today 
describe all essential factors aside from mutation, which control population structure and evo-
lutionary divergence.

Breeding of a phenotype is determined by the breeding value of the trait: on the morphological 
level by the kind of sex organs present, mostly dioecious, where a partner is required to con-
tribute the second nucleus; on the genetic level by fertilization factors to inactivate cell specific 
restrictions for gamets to fuse; by contribution of the number of genes, chromosomes and nuclei 
to karyogamy; by allele frequencies; and by gene expressivity.

Main plant and animal breeding techniques comprise selection, cross, heterosis and bio-
engineered breeding:
In selection breeding a phenotype is mass selected according to its desired trait from a mixture 
of a larger population for further cultivation. Directed (positive) selection improves the degree of 
efficiency of a trait by picking out one extreme, shifting the average of the character within the 
population. Stabilizing (negative) selection eliminates deviant individuals from the population, 
narrowing the range of genetic variability. Disruptive selection of specific extremes leads to 
greater variability and to polymorphism. Through line breeding by selection over successive 
generations a group of identical pure bred individuals is obtained and the chosen trait then 
In mono- and polyhybrid crossbreeding of genetically different organisms a fusion of alleles, 
surpassing incompatibility barriers, achieves in the daughter generation the combined, desired 
traits in one heterozygous genotype. Genetic hybrids are mixoploid combinations (mosaics) from 
different genera, leading to new species (chimera). Through convergence breeding by recurrent 
selection and intercrossing the new trait is stabilized in uniformity and consistency.
In heterosis breeding also a crossing of strains takes place, not to obtain a constant genotype, 
but for the heterosis effect, where the heterozygous mix in the genome is superior in a desired 
trait, which may be lacking in the P generation (hybrid vigor). The hybrid seed can only be gained 
from its parent populations, as the heterozygous state looses its specific mix relation by further 

Newer breeding techniques employ in combination of mutagenic, recombinant and hybridization 
DNA technologies in vitro manipulation of cell cultures in an artificial nutrient, a semisolid or 
suspension medium under controlled environmental conditions. They allow for example large 
scale breeding of life stable colonies (colony breeding); somatic hybridization between alien 
gamets, bypassing fertilization barriers, where whole, isolated, by dissolution of their walls 
stripped cells (protoplasts) of different species are fused with ones still containing a nucleus or 
with their nuclei removed to form a hybrid or a cybrid (cytoplasmatic hybrid); embryo splitting, 
breaking up of embryos in the 2 - 4 cell phase, cultivation and re-implantation into two surrogate 
mothers; cloning, asexual reproduction of an identical, recombinant DNA molecule by mitosis out 
of a single somatic or germ cell.


Gen technology
Genetic engineering, a part of bio-technology, is a discipline of molecular genetics.
It comprises the theoretical and applied aspects of isolation, analysis, manipulation and re-
combination of structural and regulative genes and their introduction, expression and multi-
plication in other organisms apart from naturally occurring processes.

Molecular bio-technology furnishes a significant contribution to basic research in genetics. It 
developed methods for analysis of nucleotides and –sequences, their structures, functions, 
reactions and products with bio-synthetic pathways and interactions, as well as technologies for 
their a) isolation and identification, b) gene mapping, c) manipulation, d) synthesis, e) ligation, 
f) transfer, g) transformation and multiplication, f) test and production devices. Transformation 
following production of a passenger DNA sequence, a vector system and ligation is the last step 
of cloning procedures, the asexual, identical reproduction of a DNA sequence. It opened the way 
for gene libraries (colony banks) and commercial production.
Applications of gene technology, the 'soft' technology, concentrate on the fields of medicine, 
pharmacology, food production, human genetic diagnosis and therapy. They expand into repro-
duction technologies, forensic genetics and pest control. Patents are granted on their products 
and methods.
a) Methods for in vitro isolation of DNA segments are cleavage by pattern recognizing restriction 
enzymes together with separation of DNA fragments e.g. by blotting or polyacrylamide gel 
electrophoresis, separations by molecular weight with nucleic acid and protein identification.
b) Gene mapping of DNA segments on a chromosome proceeds in orientation of known genes 
by direct, fragmental DNA sequence determination or indirectly, e.g. by radioactive marking, 
cleavage and identification with a gene specific DNA probe.
c) Manipulation of a DNA segment to cause a specific change in a nucleotide or –sequence is 
based on the processes of DNA mutation by means of physical, chemical or bio-chemical in-
cision, of DNA recombination by bio-chemical introduction, elimination or distortion, of DNA 
hybridization by cell and nucleic fusion of genetically close and distant (transgenic) materials.
d) Synthesis for construction of a specific DNA segment is achieved by bio-chemical de-novo 
synthesis of short oligotid sequences, followed by joining of the oligo- with polyotides, catalyzed 
by ligase enzymes, or by single strand synthesis through polymerization of complementary base 
pairs from a DNA matrix towards a complete DNA duplex, added by polymerase enzymes.
e) Ligation, joining of a passenger DNA segment often with regulative sequences into the open 
gap of a carrier DNA segment (replicon, vector) for stable gene expression, is achieved by 
covalent bonding, added by ligase enzymes, which represents via indirect integration the definite 
step towards recombinant and transgenic DNA.
f) Physical transfer of the vector system as an independent unit of replication into living host cells 
and cell nuclei is effected e.g. by concentration increase in form of a precipitate or charged 
complex or by in vitro laser poring, a micro-injection, physically opening the cell wall.
g) Transformation (a transposition) of a recombined vector system into the host genome aims at 
covalent bonding into the chromosome strands by cleavage and joining of both ends, assisted by 
restriction and ligase enzymes. The passenger DNA from in vitro cultivation is being multiplied in 
the nuclei of cell lines by repetitive transformations and cell divisions, also over the stages of 
h) Devices for testing and automated production demand accurate, sensitive, reliable, fast, 
miniaturized measurement and process control. Bio-chemical process parameters are taken up 
by bio-sensors, which contain two elements, a molecular, cell like or microorganism bio-mass, 
recognizing the biological information and a transducer for output of an electronic signal.


A mutation induces a structural change in the genotype of an organism to cause a modification 
of the phenotype. The mutation spectrum encompasses changes in the number of chromo-
somes (ploid mutation), changes in the composition of a chromosome (chromosome mutation) 
and changes in the structural or regulative region of a single gene (gene mutation).

Distinguished are haploid sets, n = 1 single, complete sets; diploid sets, n = 2 double, complete, 
homologous sets; polyploid sets, n > 2 multiple complete, corresponding sets.
Resultant structures of a ploid mutation are cells with an aneuploid set of chromosomes, which is 
increased (hyperploid) or decreased (hypoploid) by a fraction of a set. Autoploid sets are species 
specific, - alloploid sets are species non-specific.

Mutational inheritable changes by mutant gamets in genetic variability constitute a basic me-
chanism of evolution, leading to new varieties. They arise spontaneously or induced on applica-
tion of chemical agents or physical means like radiation or by means of genetic engineering. The 
mechanism can be a reaction between DNA and a mutagen, an error in DNA replication or recom-
bination, an error in transcription or translation, introduction of a mutagen altered precursor.

Hybridization encompasses all processes of cell fusions with and without ensuing fusion of cell 
nuclei, of somatic and germ cells, of genetically close and distant (transgenetic) species. In 
sexual reproduction of higher animals in the sex cycle of alternation of meiosis and karyogamy, 
individual gamets differ in composition of genetic material from each other and from the parent 
organisms (gametogamy) and male and female ones are distinct in size, form and mobility 

Gametogenesis: In all higher plants and animals, gamets, sexually differentiated copulating 
germ cells, arise in meiosis, in animals to form primordial germ cells in the gonads, the male 
(testis) and female (ovary) sex organs. They develop over several stages from spermatogonia to 
spermatocytes to spermatids to spermatozoa (male) or from oogonia to oocytes to ootides to 
ova (female), the mature germ cells. By two meiotic cell divisions (M I + M II) with recombination 
and random segregation of chromosome pairs, in all from one primordial germ cell mature four 
germ cells with a haploid set of chromosomes, where of the female three abort.

Meiosis I: The first meiotic division proceeds along 9 stages of leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, 
diplotene, diakinesis, prometaphase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, interkinesis (gap 
phase). An intra- and interchromosomal recombination takes place from zygotene to diplotene. 
The homologous chromosome strands (sets A,B) pair along their lengths: 1a-1b, 2a-2b, … 23a-
23b. Held together by contact points, they form a synaptonemal complex with open, branched, 
four armed base chains, facilitating a crossing over (chiasma), a free, reciprocal exchange of 
different chromosome segments, gene combinations or single alleles by strand break, recom-
bination and strand repair. A random assortment of chromosome pairs takes place from pro-
metaphase I to anaphase I. The halves of the diploid set on the equatorial plane are pulled by a 
spindle apparatus into opposite hemispheres of the nucleus, e.g. C: 1a, 2b, 3b, … 23a and D: 1b, 
2a, 3a, … 23b.
Meiosis II: The two nuclei with a haploid chromosome set replicate once in a short gap (G1) – 
synthesis (S) – gap (G2) phase, restoring the diploid set and leading to a second meiotic cell 
division, a mitosis, proceeding in 5 phases of prophase II, prometaphase II, metaphase II, ana-
phase II, teleophase II. During metaphase II and anaphase II the sister chromosomes align 
lengthwise on the equatorial plane to be separated as in meiosis I. The two mitotic daughter 
nuclei remain each with a haploid chromosome set. In all out of one primordial germ cell result 
after two meiotic divisions 2 genetically distinct and 2 genetically equivalent (C, C', D, D') 

Manipulation of germ cells:
Mutant and recombinant DNA sequences are introduced into germ cells, zygotes and embryos in 
the early cell stages (surrogate genetics): into a cell group to manipulate an entire cell line; into 
the homoeobox to manipulate a genetic strain through subsequent stages of ontogenesis; for 
technical reasons, as a small amount of foreign DNA affects an entire cell type evenly, in time 
stable modulation, hereditarily fixed and within a short developmental time span.

DNA Recombination
Recombinant DNA technology comprises all physical, bio-chemical and genetic processes (re-
combination system), which independently of in nature occurring processes produce a new gene 
combination by methods of introduction, elimination or distortion of a DNA sequence in a chro-
mosome. A small amount of manipulated or foreign DNA in the genome, mostly changing the 
relative amount of DNA in the host cell, is being active in gene expression, in gamets heredi-
tarily passed on to the progeny and transgressing in nature found species (chimera).

The transfer of a passenger DNA strand (transfection) is based ether on existing genetic material 
or on synthesized amino acid sequences. It is achieved by the in vitro steps of: recombination or 
de-novo synthesis or single strand synthesis of a DNA sequence with a sought for quality; con-
struction of a vector system (replicon) to stably modulate transcription and as a carrier for the 
passenger DNA for integration (transposition) into the host genome; ligation, binding the pas-
senger DNA to a vector system, - each step requiring the techniques of localization, isolation by 
cleavage and separation, characterization, generation, selection, verification. As carrier serve as 
with transposable, mutant elements often a bacterial or viral vector system, which can be inte-
grated efficiently into the host chromosome. Main commercial application is in vivo gene ampli-
fication (of an amplicon) for production of a specific protein with sought for properties.

Gene expression: Gene action is mainly regulated via transcription and translation (modulation) 
rates, which respond also to external stimuli of radiation, light, heat, hormone treatment and 
virus infections. Both rates depend in first degree on the initiation rate as the rate limiting step, 
initiation being facilitated by cell specific, regulative genes of the required number at the required 
time in coordination with metabolic conditions like product concentrations, mix, transport and 
adjustments of protein synthesis rates.
In the elongation step of mRNA synthesis from a template, transcription efficiency depends on: 
the basic vector system, function specific enzymes like promoters, enhancers, repressors, anti-
repressors, stabilizers, terminators of suitable concentration, special arrangement and transport 
paths, the fine structure of chromosomal base orientation in accessibility, attachment and win-
ding - unwinding processes.
After mRNA processing and transport to the cytoplasm of the cell, the new protein is polymerized 
by addition from the mRNA strand, the matrix. In the elongation step translation efficiency relies 
on ribosomal binding sites, tRNA, GIP, ATP concentrations and on regulative, function specific 
enzymes. The folding process begins immediately with base sequence copying, enzyme assis-
ted, forming out inhibitory or stimulatory structures, which with end group modifications specify 
the protein's transport path, function, efficiency, solubility, membrane association and anchoring.


Population Genetics
Population genetics describes the genetic demographic structure of a reproductive community, 
its allelotype by allele frequencies in the common gene pool, the genetic composition being 
derived by count of all singular genes at a specific locus in the genome of each organism, as 
well as the dynamic forces (Origin of Species, 1859, Charles Darwin), which effect changes in 
the genetic structure to render them predictable from theory.

All closed, equally dispersed, autogame populations, reproducing by panmixia (Mendelian popu-
lation), exhibit genetic variability, leading to variability of phenotypes in morphology, physiology 
and behaviour, which by the laws of inheritance are passed on to succeeding generations. In the 
evolutionary process out of genetic variability develop various forms, specialization of functions 
and adaptations to environmental changes. Through genetic flexibility and natural selection, a 
genotype survives more successfully within its own or in competition with another population or 
under limited resources or in a hostile environment by means of its relative fitness, the average 
probability of survival in one or more aspects of its phenotype like normal life span, fertility, 
pairing behaviour, body weight and metabolism. Through continuing genetic differentiation over 
geological time spans of part of a population, mostly after geographic isolation, the evolutionary 
process forms out new species (intraspecific evolution) and new genera (interspecific evolution).

On the genetic level, the wealth of variability, much larger within a population than between dif-
ferent races, is determined by all evolutionary forces: by mutation; by hybridization (with a re-
combination) in the process of sexual reproduction; by migration, an introduction and spreading 
of a gene from another population; by gene drift, a random shift of the mean of a trait distribution; 
by genetic correlation, their interaction and harmonization to maintain genetic cohesion; and by 
genetic homeostasis, the tendency to maintain and to restore a dynamic equilibrium by own re-
gulatory mechanisms.
Quantitatively the rate of change in the frequency of an allele a- depends mainly on: mutation 
and recombination rates; its mean of fitness in relation to the total fitness of its own and com-
peting populations and in relation to its heterozygote allele a+ and alternate alleles b, c, … ; its 
relative frequency in relation to equivalent parameters; magnitude and direction of selection with 
elimination of alleles; its degree of dominance; the spread of genetic variability.

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